Nomadic Prisoner Ourga, Mongolia, 25 July 1913.

The nomads of Mongolia developed a justice system to suit their mobile lifestyle. Seen here is a criminal, attached to a chain so heavy as to prevent him from running very far across the empty steppe. At the same time, he would be capable of a (most likely excruciating) forced march, from grazing ground to grazing ground – wherever his elders might see fit to travel.